Season Savvy Gardening – Planting at the Right Time for Optimal Growth in Your Climate

Gardening can be a rewarding hobby, but the optimal time and method for planting depend on your climate. Plant at the optimal time to promote optimal growth and ensure an abundant harvest.

When the weather is cool and mild, sow seeds of radishes, carrots, beets, kale and lettuce. Suppose your ground permits, perennial vegetables such as artichokes, asparagus, or horseradish could also be planted at this time.


Springtime provides the ideal time and place to assess damage from winter, repair tools and plan for an active growing season. Spring is also an excellent opportunity to tidy up gardens and lawns, add mulch to them and undertake other tasks that help prep our yards for growth.

As part of any plan to revitalize soil quality, amending it is the first step. Tilling or turning soil in autumn and mixing in organic matter is optimal; however, it can also be done during spring. A general guideline suggests adding two inches of organic matter – like branches and twigs, shredded paper, vegetable scraps, grass clippings, or organic compost blended with other substances to increase plant moisture and nutrition levels – into your soil to retain moisture and nutrients for plant growth.

Start planting vegetable seeds indoors in late February-early March so they have time to establish strong roots before the midsummer heat sets in. It is also wise to start outdoor crops such as cabbages, kale, broccoli, cauliflower, onions, artichokes, radish beets and carrots early to mid-March as soon as weather permits.

Now is an excellent time to add bare-root and containerized shrubs and woody perennials into the landscape, filling in gaps with structure, colour and blooms while drawing pollinators into your garden.

People looking to add some new elements to their garden should consider using containers to cultivate flowers and shrubs that are easy enough in their zone, such as Royal Hawaiian colocasia, Lunar Lights Begonia or Skycraper Senecio. They can be planted in large containers before being moved around for optimal growth in sunny spots in the landscape or kept indoors until spring. Hence, the plants have time to establish themselves before summer heat and humidity arrive – giving the best chance for success!


By early summer, frost risks are usually gone, and seeds can be directly sown outdoors. Plan on sowing seed once every two weeks to achieve a continuous harvest from summer into autumn. Tender veggies such as courgettes and squash can be planted under cloches for an earlier start in greenhouse environments. May is a busy month for sowing various vegetable seeds, such as chard, salads, lettuce, beans, cucumbers, pumpkins, and melons.

Warm-season plants like tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, corn melons and squashes have evolved for tropical or hot climates. They grow as fruits rather than roots, stems or leaves, making them susceptible to frost and poor performance in cool soil temperatures.

Sowing both cool-season and warm-season crops in succession planting can keep your garden productive throughout the entire summer season. Even cold-hardy varieties can be planted in late spring or fall and survive harsh winter conditions.

If you’re an enthusiastic berry grower, choose blueberries that bloom throughout the season for maximum harvest potential. Hydrate strawberries regularly while covering them with bird netting to protect the fruit from hungry birds.

As temperatures and drought conditions heat up, ensure you water more frequently and adjust the amount of fertilizer applied. A light application of slow-release or water-soluble fertilizers can promote healthy, vibrant growth while alleviating stress caused by high temps or drought conditions.

Pinch back, deadhead or prune your vegetables and flowers regularly to encourage them to focus their energy on production instead of spreading disease in your garden. Doing this also improves air circulation and decreases disease problems in the area.


As autumn arrives, vegetative growth slows, and plants enter a dormant phase to focus on building sturdy roots to survive and flourish once spring returns – an optimal time for most vegetable gardens to plant their seeds.

Cooler temperatures relieve plants and gardeners alike of stress while the soil remains warm enough for root development. Fall also brings regular seasonal rains, which help plants become established before winter.

Peas and snap peas are known to flourish when planted in fall gardens. Asian greens such as tatsoi, pac choi, and mizuna also do well since they mature quickly and can withhold frost damage.

Fall planting of ornamental shrubs, evergreen trees, and perennials is often recommended to speed their development faster; planting them up to six weeks before frost can allow enough time for their roots to take hold before freezing occurs. Garden centres frequently offer discounts on these varieties in autumn.

Now is also an excellent time to remove faded annual flowers, transplant or divide perennials such as bee balm, chrysanthemums and yarrow, and fertilize plants after relocating or dividing. Just be sure to fertilize after you relocate or divide.

Fall is an excellent time to add new layers of mulch to your vegetable garden, helping retain moisture and prevent weed growth. Furthermore, now is a fantastic opportunity to incorporate compost or manure as soil amendments into the mix.

Are you ready to wind down before winter sets in? Make the most of this final gardening chore before winter sets in by replacing faded annuals with beautiful mums and ornamental kale, dried cornstalks for harvest decor and stems of ornamental grasses and beautyberry for year-round colour – then sit back, relax, and dream of your spring garden. This article is an adaptation from Ingrid Law’s book Savvy Girl: The Savvy Girl’s Guide to Seasonal Success, published in August 2010. For more garden-related tips and tricks, subscribe to Savvy Girl or view our complete selection of books & box sets


As winter nears, you may be questioning the viability of a productive vegetable garden. The answer depends on your climate: in areas where freezes occur frequently in autumn and winter, cool-season plants such as kale, turnip, Swiss chard, and spinach can continue providing greenery all year. They can be directly planted into the ground or grown from seed in module trays before being transferred into your garden once ready.

Growing quick-harvest vegetables like radishes, tendril peas and lettuce before frost sets in is also possible; with proper protection like greenhouses, cloches, and row covers in place, you could even extend their harvest into spring and summer if planting late in the season.

If you live in the South, starting seeds of warm-season crops such as tomatoes, peppers and squash is recommended in early spring or fall if the weather permits. Furthermore, warm soil temperatures also allow the opportunity to plant or transplant bare-root trees and shrubs at this time.

However, in more temperate regions, it’s wise to focus more on developing root systems for your plants so they can survive winter’s chill and become established before it is too extreme. This advice applies especially to trees with exposed roots, such as those bearing cones – these plants may be particularly vulnerable.

As America is such a vast nation with diverse climates from coast to coast, starting a vegetable garden can be daunting for beginners. Your initial goal should be creating one that produces food year-round; sunlight may be your only limiting factor, but greenhouses, cloches, and row covers are practical tools to extend planting seasons for most vegetable crops and provide fresh, flavorful produce right from your yard!

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